By Maribel Fierro
Абд ар-Рахман III — эмир с 912 года, халиф с 929 года из династии кордовских Омейядов. Восстановил полураспавшийся при его предшественниках Кордовский эмират. В 931 году взял Сеуту, в 932 году — Толедо. С 955 года заставил королей Леона и Наварры платить дань. Отвоевал у Фатимидов часть Магриба (Северная Африка). Имел баскские корни (басками были его мать и мать отца).Абдаррахман заботился о развитии культуры и об усилении политической мощи, покровительствуя развитию сельского хозяйства, ремесла, торговли, литературы и просвещения. Упорядочил финансы, поощрял строительство. При нем были созданы крупные памятники искусства в столице и в других городах. Кордова стала одним из самых прекрасных городов мира; в этом городе было около полумиллиона жителей. Правление Абдаррахмана III — апогей расцвета аль-Андалуса и кордовских Омейядов.
Read or Download Abd al-Rahman III PDF
Best other eastern religions & sacred texts books
Aryel Sanat's meticulously researched and cogently argued exploration of Krishnamurti's internal existence and stories explodes a few well known myths approximately Krishnamurti, quite that he denied the life of the Theosophical Masters and disdained the esoteric facet of the religious direction. quite, Sanat persuasively demonstrates, Krishnamurti had a wealthy and excessive esoteric existence.
Chinese language and Western thinkers ponder the chinese language philosophical culture and chinese language philosophy for the modern worldwide period.
Open barriers offers a brand new viewpoint on Jainism, one of many oldest but least-studied of the world’s dwelling religions. Ten closely-focused stories examine the interactions among Jains and non-Jains in South Asian society, with specific stories of yoga, tantra, aesthetic concept, erotic poetry, theories of kingship, goddess worship, temple ritual, polemical poetry, non secular girls, and historiography.
Until eventually his dying in 1976 grasp Chuang, a descendant of 35 generations of Taoist monks, performed his historic rituals for the advantage of a small band of believers in Taiwan. His relatives, who claimed to have come from Hua Shan, the Taoist mountain in western China, the observances of the Dragon-Tiger Mountain sect in southeastern China.
- Seventeenth Century Literature and Culture
- Past-Life & Karmic Tarot (Special Topics in Tarot Series)
- Kuan-yin: The Chinese Transformation of Avalokitesvara (Institute for Advanced Study of World Religions)
- Confucius : a guide for the perplexed
- MHC: A Practical Approach
Extra resources for Abd al-Rahman III
Both suffered ill-treatment during that period, not being allowed to compete on an equal footing with Arabs and clients for the highest honors and stipends in the army. Therefore, they realized the limitations to which their origins subjected them and above all discovered that what the emir offered them was inferior to what they could achieve by acting on their own, as they had done before. In sum, the Muwallads rebelled for their right to share power and compete for economic and social rewards on equal terms with the Arabs and, in the case of converts, with the “old” Muslims.
For some years, the killer went unpunished. Ibn al-Qutiyya presents Mutarrif as a zindiq, a term used for apostates and heretics, meaning that he was executed in accordance with Islamic law. But there is no other evidence that Mutarrif was guilty of either apostasy or heresy, except for his alleged intention to kill some prominent scholars. Ibn al-Qutiyya wrote under ‘Abd al-Rahman III as a court historian for whom politics and religion were not and could not be separated: a pretender to the throne was not only a political enemy and a traitor, but also a religious dissident.
The possibility exists that he might have been an Isma‘ili, one of those Shi‘i agents who were preaching the Isma‘ili cause all over the Islamic world at the time and whose presence is attested in al-Andalus during the ninth century. The first Fatimid caliph adopted the title al-Mahdi in 909. In 901 Ibn al-Qitt had also claimed to be a Mahdi, a messianic figure due to appear at the end of time bringing justice to this world. 048 14/12/2004 1:17 PM Page 37 THE COLLAPSE OF UMAYYAD POWER AND ITS RECOVERY 37 like Abu ‘Abd Allah, was an ascetic missionary gathering an army among Berber tribesmen in the name of a messianic figure.
Abd al-Rahman III by Maribel Fierro