By Stephen H. Fairclough, Kiel Gilleade
This edited assortment will supply an summary of the sector of physiological computing, i.e. using physiological signs as enter for machine regulate. it's going to conceal a breadth of present learn, from brain-computer interfaces to telemedicine.
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Extra info for Advances in Physiological Computing
1 out of 10). This is intuitively useful when the goal of physiological computing is to adjust continuous variables such as the amount of lighting in a room or the speed of opponents in a computer game. However, the problem of estimation is that commonly accepted validation metrices practically do not exist in physiological computing. While it 2 Engineering Issues in Physiological Computing 31 should be possible to determine, for instance, the mean squared error, variance, or bias of an estimator, this is rarely done in psychophysiological studies, and results are instead often described only qualitatively.
Very explicit actions should be taken only occasionally, as they may otherwise upset the users. Consider the example of changing the difficulty of the game: if the difficulty changes every ten seconds, users may become annoyed at the inability to enjoy a stable game experience. Conversely, if the system offers assistance every ten seconds, users may become upset as attention is drawn to their poor performance. Implicit, unobtrusive actions such as changing the lighting of the room can be taken more often, but have two disadvantages.
As an illustration of how problematic this can be, Picard et al. (2001) analyzed the psychophysiological responses of a single subject who expressed eight emotional states daily over 20 days. They were able to classify the eight emotions with an accuracy of 81 %. They then attempted to classify the measured emotions according to the day they were evoked and were able to classify the day with an accuracy of 83 %. It is therefore easier to determine the day on which an emotion was expressed than the type of emotion from physiology!
Advances in Physiological Computing by Stephen H. Fairclough, Kiel Gilleade