By Igor Agranovski
This self-contained guide and prepared reference examines aerosol technological know-how and know-how intensive, offering an in depth perception into this innovative box. As such, it covers primary ideas, experimental tools, and a large choice of purposes, starting from aerosol filtration to organic aerosols, and from the synthesis of carbon nanotubes to aerosol reactors.Written by means of a number of across the world popular specialists within the box, this can be an important source for chemists and engineers within the chemical and fabrics disciplines throughout a number of industries, in addition to perfect supplementary studying in graduate point classes.
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Additional info for Aerosols: Science and Technology
3 Possible Sources of Fractal Particles The sources of FAs are subdivided into two groups: natural and anthropogenic ones. 1 Natural Sources Volcanos Volcanic eruptions produce a lot of volcanic ash, consisting of aggregated oxide particles of the size from fractions of a micrometer up to millimeters. In addition, extreme volcanic conditions produce a lot of smaller aggregates. Forest ﬁres These produce a huge amount of ash ﬂakes whose sizes vary from fractions of a micrometer up to centimeters.
065 µm), which means that the free-molecule regime of particle charging demands some special conditions and can be realized, for example, in the ionosphere. 23) that is, the ﬂux is proportional to the ion density n∞ far away from the particle. The proportionality coefﬁcient α(a) is known as the charging efﬁciency. The problem is to ﬁnd α(a). 24) We can generalize Eq. 25) where nR is the ion concentration at a distance R from the particle center. It is important to emphasize that nR is (still) an arbitrary value introduced as a boundary condition at the distance R (also arbitrary) to a kinetic equation that is necessary to solve for deﬁning α(a, R).
45) R3−D One immediately sees that the total volume occupied by the voids is exactly 4πR3 /3 once the shape factor γ deﬁning the dependence of the average volume V(a) of a void on its characteristic size a is given as γ = 4π(6 − D)/3(3 − D) (V = γ a3 ). 9, indicating that these FAs are of coagulation origin. 2) Such low fractal dimensions are explained by non-isotropy of observed FAs, which are mostly aligned in one direction. This anisotropy probably arises due to Coulomb or dipole–dipole interaction of FAs.
Aerosols: Science and Technology by Igor Agranovski