By Catherine Raeff
In recent times, there was a proliferation of theoretical and empirical scholarship on how problems with human separateness, or independence, and problems with human connectedness, or interdependence, are performed out in diversified cultural contexts. regardless of contract at the worth of realizing tradition and improvement by way of independence and interdependence, many matters stay open for persisted theoretical refinement and empirical research. This booklet provides a clean conceptualization which holds that independence and interdependence are multifaceted and inseparable dimensions of human functioning that could be outlined and enacted in a different way in numerous cultures. hence, the present method money owed for the basic separateness and connectedness of all people in a manner that's either universally acceptable and culturally delicate. in response to this conceptual procedure, the point of interest of this article is to delineate how different independence and interdependence matters are interrelated in the course of improvement in culturally distinctive methods. In doing so, the booklet bargains a conceptual strategy that strikes cultural and developmental analyses past investigating even if a few cultures price independence or interdependence roughly than others, to investigating how either independence and interdependence are construed and particularized in the course of improvement all over the world. constantly Separate, continually attached: Independence and Interdependence in Cultural Contexts of improvement should be of curiosity to quite a lot of developmentalists in psychology, schooling, relations reviews, anthropology, and sociology. furthermore, the publication may perhaps serve complex undergraduates, in addition to graduate scholars in those diversified disciplines. it could actually even be of curiosity to social welfare practitioners, reminiscent of medical psychologists, assistance counselors, and social employees.
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Extra resources for Always Separate, Always Connected: Independence and Interdependence in Cultural Contexts of Development
For example, we know Americans who would not hesitate to marry someone their parents dislike, but we also know Americans who would never do such a thing. In China those who press for human rights are likely to be idiocentric in a collectivist culture. In the United States, those who join communes are likely to be allocentric in an individualistic culture. (p. 5) Within this model, a distinction is sometimes made between applying conceptions of independence and interdependence to cultures and applying them to individual behavior.
MOVING BEYOND DICHOTOMOUS CONCEPTIONS OF INDEPENDENCE AND INTERDEPENDENCE However, in the context of increasingly apparent limitations, calls to look beyond dichotomous conceptions of independence and interdependence have been advanced, and initial attempts to do so involved presenting empirical examples (some of which have already been discussed in this chapter) of independence in so-called interdependence cultures and of interdependence in so-called independence cultures. In addition to offering a list of examples of both independence and interdependence in varied cultures, some attempts have been made to conceptualize the dynamics of how independence and interdependence are coordinated in human functioning.
But one would be hard-pressed to argue that she conceptualized herself in isolation from others or in isolation from social concerns. In addition, studies of Euro-American adolescents show that they define themselves differently in relation to different people, such as their parents, friends, and romantic partners (Harter & Monsour, 1992), indicating that there is even a “proliferation of multiple selves across roles” (Harter, 1999, p. 65). Thus, as Euro-Americans define themselves in terms of personal attributes, these attributes are socially situated and may be understood differently in the context of different social relationships.
Always Separate, Always Connected: Independence and Interdependence in Cultural Contexts of Development by Catherine Raeff